THE PHYSICS OF CREATION
Evolutionists today are fond of the "Big Bang" theory as their starting point. There was supposedly a time before time existed when the entire universe was compressed into an unbelievably dense and hot singularity. This super black hole would be so dense that no known physical force we know of could escape its massive gravitation. In this Universe gravity would reign as the supreme tyrant. But as one scientist has said, "well a lot was going on when nothing was happening". This singularity blew up 8 to 15 billion years ago and released all the matter it contained which was wholly hydrogen and helium. This hydrogen and helium formed stars, which went novae and through that created all the heavier elements, which was distributed through the universe by the novae and supernovae explosions. Some 4 to 8 billion years the solar system formed and the earth was in a molten state for 2 to 4 billion years. Eventually natural selection produced what we see today.
It is interesting that evolution came to be during the popular cosmology theory of the steady state universe. This assumed the universe was infinite and unending and had no beginning. This gave them:
1. The needed enormous amount of time needed.
2. The lack of a beginning and thus no uncaused cause.
COBE 1 cosmic background explorer 1990, universe a perfect radiator. Background radiation 30 K. I.e. Oven in room. Four things need to be known. We can assume 1 if we know the other 3. 1.Time 2. Original temp 3. Remaining temp 4. Nature of radiator. We know only 2. By assuming a long time we can project back to a very energetic beginning. However if we assume back only a short time we can project a not so energetic beginning.
COBE II, 1992, nonuniform background radiation 1: 100,00016 thought to explain galaxy formation. Galaxies formed of normal matter and exotic matter.
90% to 95% of the matter needed to explain galaxy formation from gravitational coupling is missing.
10-14 - 10-10
Low mass neutrinos
axinos, mirror particles
Warm / Cold
Primordial black holes
The dark matter weakly interacts with radiation and thus could cause the galaxies to form and keep the background radiation smooth.
However, another theory is that the background radiation is from something other that the energy of the big bang and that the missing matter is unimportant if the universe is only 20 to 6 thousand years old. There is much evidence to support the young cosmos theory, as we shall see later.
The evolutionist depends on random chance and enormous amounts of time for their postulate. Only they don't have enough time. We will discuss that later.
What the Bible does say is that there was a beginning and thus there is a continuum that is running down. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are in operation everywhere.
1st law, law of conservation. Matter and energy can neither be created not destroyed. They can only change form.
2nd law, Law of Entropy. All things within the universe tend to change from a state of order to one of disorder, free (usable) energy to unusable energy.
Entropy is equal to death. Some say that before Adam fell, Entropy didn't exist.
The universe is not mathematically open, not closed but flat. I.e. finely tuned to 1 part in 1060
Einstein and Relativity
1902- 1926 worked out theory and mathematics.
1. Time, space, matter and gravity are all relative to each other or a function of each other.
2. Light is the constant by which all is measured as its speed is independent of the velocity of its emitter
3. As an object approached the speed of light its mass increases by the reciprocal of the square root of (1-v2/c2), its length shortens and its time slows by the square root of (1-v2/c2).
4. Mass and Energy are interchangeable by the formula E=Mc2.
5. Gravity is a function of mass distorting space.
6. Gravity or acceleration can bend light.
7. Time can be slowed by: 1. Acceleration- called Time dilation and 2. Gravity- called Gravitational time dilation.
Max Planck, Blackbody radiation problem,
Took Rayleigh-Jeans Law, long wavelengths
Wilhelm Wein, short wavelengths
Planck found that he could derive the correct law of distribution of radiation if he make some assumptions: 1.) Energy is produced in discrete amounts called Quanta. 2.) The amount of energy is equal to an integer (whole number) x the frequency v x a constant h (Planck's famous constant) This lead to a law that described energy as radiating in extremely small bits or quanta and not smoothly or analogously. BUT IT EXPLAINED THE PROBLEM. No one knew why until Einstein.
Planck's constant for length 10-33 cm
Planck's constant for time. 10-43 sec
Planck's constant for energy 6.6 x 10-34 joule seconds.
Nature of fundamental matter in universe.
Atomic particles of the Neutron, Proton and Electron are not the smallest particles.
There are six families in the standard gauge theory and gauge symmetry theory.
1. Hadrons (subject to strong nuclear force) Baryons: protons, neutrons and Mesons
2. Leptons, (not subject to strong force) flavors-negative charge. Electron, Muon, Tau, (neutrinos) each has antiparticle.
3. Quarks, up, down, charm, strange, top/truth, bottom/beauty, red, blue, green, anti all the above. Quantum Chromo dynamics. Never directly observed but evidence observed.
4. Photons. Have no mass, always in motion at c, each is own antiparticle.
5. Neutrinos. 10,000 time lighter than electron. Axions missing link.
6. Bosons: Particles that carry forces. (Full spin particles obeying Bose-Einstein statistics.)
1. Strong Nuclear Force. Nucleus of atom. Carrier Gluon
2. Weak Nuclear Force. Associated with radioactive decay. Carrier Bosons.
3. Electromagnetic. Waveforms. Carrier Photon.
4. Gravity, Gravitational Coupling, Carrier graviton.
Subatomic Particles- Wave or particle?
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Experimenter can know position or momentum of an atomic particle, but not both. This has been greatly misunderstood. At first it was thought that technical refinement of the ability to sense extremely small energy levels would eliminate this principal, but that proved to not be the case. Others claim that this proves the mind of the experimenter impacts the experiment and thus we control our own cosmos by our mind. This is so much New Age claptrap. What the principal merely says is that the fundamental physics of the Universe is uncertain or fuzzy.
In quantum world:
1. System has no reality except while it is being observed.
2. Each particle knows what is happening to other particles. I.e. 2 slit
Experiment. Light shown through a single slit produces a scattering on the other side as if it is a particle. However, place a two slit barrier behind the single slit barrier and the scattering on the other side shows wave properties. It is as if the photons all know what is happening and react in concert.
The search for Schrodinger's Cat.
A cat is in a box. What can you tell about if the cat is dead or alive without opening the box? Quantum theory, cat is a wave function that is the sum of both a dead and live cat. When cat is observed, in whatever state, the opposite wave function collapses.
The Bell Inequality
John S. Bell, 1964 at CERN near Geneva. He developed three rules he thought Quantum thought violated in standard physics.
1. There are real things that exist regardless of whether we observe them.
2. It is legitimate to draw general conclusions from consistent observations or experiments.
3. That no influence can propagate faster than c. (local reality)
1972 he developed mathematics to support. Using proton spin he developed seven inequalities to support his three rules.
1975 UC Berkeley five of first seven tests violated.
1976 Saclay Nuclear Research, sixth test violated
1982 Alain Aspect, University of Paris-South, seventh test violated
The violation of the seven inequalities proved Quantum thought mathematically correct. There is not local reality and influences in Quantum world propagate instantly.
Feynman Diagram. In the diagram of electron - positron annihilation- positron is simply electron in a time reversal or loop lasting less than a therasecond!
Entropy is time's arrow. Time reversal is reverse entropy. I.e. expansion of black hole Schwarzschield radius. Black hole is enormous entropy hole.
"People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion."
"I think it is safe to say that know one understands quantum mechanics ... in fact, it is often stated that of all the theories proposed in this century, the silliest is quantum theory. The only thing that quantum theory has going for it, in fact, is that it is unquestionably correct."
Quantum mechanics tells us that the basic units of matter are only real when we observe them, that each particle is connected in some strange way to all other particles so that all react to an event instantaneously. Science now deals in units of mass, length, energy and time that cannot be subdivided, they are digital not analog. They operate according to the laws of probability and statistics and not causality. Physics has been cast upon a sea of uncertainty.
Col. 1:17 "By Him are all things held together."
Space-time is curved. Euclidean geo. 2D Triangle sum of angles = 1800
In Space-time sum of angles can equal 2700 + Space is curved.
Reimannian geometry is the mathematical foundation of geometry of multiple dimensions.
Higher dimensional space simplifies and unifies the various forces of nature. Einstein concluded time was 4th dimension.
Michael Faraday, James Clark Maxwell development of field theory.
Einstein tried to develop field theory of gravity but could not unify with Maxwell's equations in four dimensions. In five they worked.
Maxwell's equations were 8 in number and ungainly in three dimensions. They looked like this:
L @ E = r
L x B - dE/dt = j
L @ E = O
L x E + dB/dt = O
The second and the last are vector equations and thus represent three equations for each of the three vectors each, bringing the total to eight.
The relativistic rewrite using the Maxwell Tensor:
Fmv = dmAv - dvAm
is: dmFmv = jv
1919, 1926 A five dimensional theory of gravity in which light could be viewed as vibrations in the fifth dimension "curled up" within the Planck length. 100 billion billion times smaller than a proton
Experimental verification required Planck energy of 1019 billion electron volts. Far beyond anything available today and in the foreseeable future. Dormant until Quantum theory 1930's.
Reimannian Metric Tensor
A field with curved space-time: 10 numbers describe 4 dimensions. (6 are symmetrical therefore redundant.)
1954, Mathematical model for unlocking lower dimensional field equations in higher dimensional analysis. Important model to understand higher dimensions.
By 1970's all nuclear matter could be unlocked by Yang-Mills field. Strong force: Quarks (3 colors, 6 flavors, + antiquarks = 36) are held together by packets of energy called gluons. Quantum Chromo dynamics. etc.
Weak force: governs the properties of "leptons" such as electron, Muon, Tau meson and their neutrino partners.
Electromagnetic Force, includes Maxwell's equations.
All matter consists of quarks and leptons, which interact by exchanging different types of quanta, described by Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields.
T.O.E. Strings (Theory of Everything)
Quantum Chromo dynamics (QCD) + General Relativity = Superstrings.
Strings are one-dimensional strings (in lieu of points) that are dimensionless and fill the universe. Gravity waves are ripples in the fabric of space-time, and its associated particle is the graviton.
Strings have loops, Planck dimension 1033cm, which tunnel through space. Each point of space, at each moment of time, is really a tiny complex curled-up six-dimensional world. (cf. Aerial photo of a garden hose.)
They can vibrate self consistently only in 10 and 26 dimensions. Heterotic strings: clockwise vibrations live in a 10-dimension space. Counter clockwise in a 26-dimension space.
They are 100 billion billion times smaller than a proton. Particle is not a point at all, but a mode of a vibrating string. Matter is nothing but the harmonies (resonances) created by this vibrating string. (DNA coiled double helix)
Thus: The symmetries of the subatomic realm are but remnants of the symmetry of higher dimensional space.
Srinivasa Ramanujan: Ramanujan function. String vibrates in 10 dimensions because it requires generalized Ramanujan functions in order to remain self consistent.
Praise is always on an instrument of 10 strings. cf. Ps 33:2, 92:3, 144:9 etc.
"Intelligent life may escape the (ultimate) collapse by fleeing into hyperspace..."
Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations
Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations: A New Rosetta Stone of Physics?
Everything for Nothing
What Holds the Universe Together?
Atomic Behavior, Light, and the Red Shift.
New concept of the Aether.
Not a total vacuum but a seething sea of energy and particles that appear and disappear. (Super strings?)
Also called the Zero Point Energy. Where energy level in Quantum Vacuum averages 0, and fluctuates around that point by enormous amounts. Related to Heisenberg's Uncertainty theory and inherent "fuzziness" of quantum particles.
Two Problems with Bohr Atom.
1. Nucleus consists of all protons and neutrons. Like charges repel. Calls for mysterious "Strong Nuclear Force with exchange of "gluons" to hold together.
2. Electron shell. According to quantum theory should radiate away all energy like a small antenna and fall into the nucleus and matter cease to exist.
According to experiments by the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, the ZPE fluctuations have a frequency of half a proton but have a nearly infinite mode of propagation and thus have energies that are quite enormous. In fact its energy density is higher than the energy density in the atomic nucleus!!
The ZPE is extremely uniform in density and thus hard to detect.
The air pressure on you has no effect, as it is the same outside as in. But draw a vacuum internally and the air pressure would crush you.
Setterfield calculated the energy density to be roughly 1017 Kilowatts per cubic meter. This is roughly equal to 10 trillion times the world's total yearly output of electric energy. And the ZPE is instantaneous energy. This is truly enormous energy and if its source were located anywhere in this 10-dimension universe would be enough to literally burn it up. Thus it appears that the ZPE is entering our universe from somewhere outside of it.
It now appears that the QVF or ZPE is the source of energy that holds the nucleus together and keeps the electrons in their shell. The stability of matter depends on the sea of energy provided by the QVF or ZPE
2 tier universe physical / spiritual
1 tier physical
Our physical universe is embedded in the spiritual Universe and the spiritual universe upholds the physical.
2 Peter 3:10
2 Cor. 4:18
2 Cor. 2:6-16
Rev. 1 Alpha and Omega
1. Gravity. Is this a result of ZPE and not a fundamental force itself? The density of the fluctuations would be the greatest wherever matter is the greatest. Gravity could be a long range Casimir effect.
2. Could ZPE answer the quantum electrodynamics conundrums of probability?
3. Remember the Tetrahedron of Mr. Stan Tenen? Some physics have looked at experiments by Michael Faraday and James Maxwell on a "Tetrahedral generator" This was a strange experiment by the two early scientists where they put a tetrahedron inside a sphere where by an apex touched a pole and the angle was such that the other three apexs touched the sphere at 19.50 above the equator. They then rotated the tetrahedron and produced electricity at the 19.50 band on the sphere. They soon abandoned the experiment with no clue where the electricity was coming from. Recently physicists and planetary geologists have looked at this and seen that there are planetary anomalies that correspond to this 19.50 angle.
A. Venus - Alpha and Beta Regio, two active Volcanoes are at 19.50
B. Earth - The Hawaiian Islands are at 19.60 north latitude.
C. The Moon - Tsiolkovskii a far side unique "mare - like" lava extrusion at 19.60 south.
D. Mars - Olympus Mons, the solar systems largest volcano, 28 kms, 3 times the height of Mt. Everest is at 19.30 North latitude.
E. Jupiter - The great red spot is at 19.50 South latitude. Jupiter is also much warmer than expected and may be receiving much more energy that expected.
F. Saturn - Voyager spacecraft took some interesting time lapse photos of the North Pole of Saturn, which showed some strange hexagonal pattern of clouds. This might possible be a signature of the inwelling of the "Hyperdimensional Tetrahedral Energy" cascading down from the higher dimensions.
G. The Sun. - The peak latitude of the 11 year sunspot cycle and the peak latitude of the peak solar energy emission is at 19.50 North and South Latitudes.
This is currently still in very controversial status at present but presents an interesting tie in with the tetrahedron found in the first verse of Genesis and some leading edge physics research.
We now begin the portion of the creation story where God speaks things into existence. God's word or logos is powerful. The Logos or Christ was present at the creation as well. John 1:1-3, Col. 1:15-17.
"Then God said, 'Let there be light' and there was light. And God saw that the light was good and God separated the light from the darkness. And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day."
Note light is created before the sun or stars, which we assume, are the sources of light. But remember light is a function of the waveform vibrations of the Superstrings in the curled fifth dimension.
Light is one of the fundamental forms of energy. Light has both the properties of particles and waveform of energy. E=MC2 is the famous equation where Einstein proved the exchangeability of matter and energy. C is the light constant and is the enormous speed against all other things in the universe must be referenced. 186,000 miles per second or about 6.2 trillion miles per year. Light and time are inversely related as well.
The question rises also, does light travel in a straight line in space. If indeed light emanates from the 5 dimension, then light may travel along the Reimannian curve along the boundary between the 5th dimension and our 4 dimensional plane and thus could theoretically traverse a 20 billion light year distance in about 20 days or less!
Scientists try to date the universe by estimating the distances of the most distance objects in the universe and correlate that with the Hubbell light constant to get the enormous age of the universe. The items the farthest away are some peculiar objects called quasars. These are enormously energetic objects, emitting more on one wavelength band than our whole galaxy emits on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Another peculiar feature of these distant objects is the red shift in their light.
The "Doppler Effect" causes the red shift in the light. Waveforms of energy act in certain ways when the object emitting them is moving. The red shift makes these objects appear to be accelerating away from us and there are some objects that appear to be going faster than the speed of light away from us due to the sharp red shift.
Perhaps the light constant C is not constant.
The Doppler effect could be caused by the degradation of the speed of light as well.
Australian physicist Barry Setterfield, and mathematician Trevor Norman, examined all of the experimental measurements since 1657 and concluded
that light has been slowing down. Canadian mathematician Alan Montgomery also analyzed the data statistically and concluded that the decay in the velocity of light has followed a cosecant-squared curve with a correlation coefficient of better than 99%.
With this curve the speed of light may have been:
10-30% faster in the time of Christ.
Twice as fast in the days of Solomon
Four times faster in Abraham's time and,
As much as 10 million times faster 6000 years ago at creation
This has enormous implications in Physics as many of the fundamental theories rely on the C constant. The universe may be 10 million times smaller than we think.
We are at the flat part of the cosecant-squared curve now and the light is slowing down but not very fast, for all purposes the 186,000 mi./sec. is relatively constant now.
Recent studies of red shift data also support the light slowing theory.
William Tift, astronomer at U. of Arizona. Collected 20 years of data on red shifts. Noted several interesting things.
1. Red shift was dependent on type of galaxy. I.e. spiral and dim had higher RS that elliptical and bright.
2. Some clusters exhibited only RS data of certain discrete values, not smooth. If c was decaying then specific values of c govern the quantization of emitted wavelengths.
3. Some galaxies i.e. Andromeda had a shift to the blue which means they are rushing towards us.
This could radically alter the Big Bang theories.
Radiometric dating also is affected as c affects the rate of nucleon exchange and alpha particle escape rate in all forms of dating. I.e. C14, potassium-argon, chlorine isotope etc.
The White Hole Beginning
Dr. Russell Humphreys, in his book "Starlight and Time - Solving the Puzzle of Distant Starlight in a Young Universe", presents another cosmological theory about the origin of the Universe that counters the current Big Bang.
Big Bang Assumptions
1. Universe is Unbounded
2. Universe has no center.
These Assumptions are fitted over either of two other assumptions of the size of the Universe.
The Infinite Universe
The infinite theory of a centerless, unbounded universe says that the universe is homotropic in all directions and infinite in all directions and a traveler traveling in a straight line in a direction would keep traveling and never come to an end of the Universe.
This theory has very serious problems such as the energy density of the Universe (near absolute zero in free space) is inconsistent with an infinite energy of all the stars. Of course the counter infinite space for the infinite energy to energize could be thrown up. But the prime singularity had to contain the entire infinite universe in an almost infinitely small point. Most physicists have rejected this theory for obvious reasons.
The Finite Universe
The finite theory states that the universe is limited but unbounded and un-centered. A traveler going in a straight line would eventually come back to the point from which he started.
The Expanding Universe
Most people assume the expansion after the big bang is like all matter was at a single point, that point exploded and all matter moves out into space from that point in a spherical shaped glob of matter.
That is not the way physicists view the expanding universe.
1. Take a balloon and glue some sequins (representing galaxies) to the surface and blow up the balloon. The sequins move apart from each other as the 2 dimensional surface or substance of the balloon expands into three dimensions.
2, Now Imagine the Universe as on the surface of a four dimensional sphere (called a hypersphere) and the expansion of three dimensional space occurs in 4 dimensions. The galaxies move apart because space is expanding not because they are part of a primordial explosion.
This expansion of space had biblical precedence.
Job 9:8, Ps 104:2, Isa 40:22, Jer. 10:12, Zech 12:1, 2 Sam. 22:10, Job 26:7, 37:8, Ps. 18:9, 144:5, Isa. 42:5, 44:24, 45:12, 48:13, 51:13, Jer. 51:15, Ezek. 1:22.
The above verses use 4 Hebrew verbs that are translated to stretch out.
1. Natah - extend, stretch out, spread out.
2. Tapach - spread out, extend
3. Matach - spread out, to bow (as in rainbow) across the heavens
4. Raqa - to spread out, hammer out in a thin sheet
This last verb raqa is tied to the noun raqia which is translated as "firmament" or "expanse" in Gen. 1:6, 7, 14, 15, 17, 20, Ps.19:1, 150:1, and Ezek. 1:22.
Other verses also talk like the "heavens": can be torn (Isa 64:1), can be worn out like a garment (Ps 102:26), can be shaken (Heb. 12:26, Haggai 2:6, Isa. 13:13), burnt up (2 Peter 3:12), can be split apart like a scroll when it is rolled up (Rev. 6:14), or rolled up like a mantle (Heb. 1:12) or rolled up like a scroll (Isa 34:4). The Bible certainly talks about space as if it is "something" rather than a vacuum.
Physics evidence points that such a substance would be a hyperdimensional elastic solid. We would be moving through this substance without knowing it. (Dirac's electron sea, Pauli's exclusion principle)
Time and Gravity
Most people that are familiar with General Relativity (GR) know that time is affected by velocity. This is known as time dilation relative to velocity. What most don't realize is that time is also affected by gravity. Or that time dilation relative to gravity is true too. We know this to be empirically true as a cesium clock in Boulder Co. runs about 5 microseconds faster than a clock at sea level in Greenwich GB. This means that all process, atomic, biological etc. run slower at sea level, or closer to the mass and gravity well it creates. We must think of time as not absolute but relative.
Black holes are predicted by GR. They are the remnants of massive stars that have collapsed into a singularity in which gravity takes precedents over any other of the four fundamental forces of nature. The black hole keeps collapsing and drawing matter into it. There is a region out from the black hole called the event horizon beyond which even light cannot escape the gravitational force. As matter falls into the black hole the event horizon expands. The mathematics of GR says that matter and light must fall into the black hole and not out.
Time and Gravity
We have previously seen that in GR gravity also dilates time. Normally this amounts to micro seconds in most places, but in the black hole, with its enormous gravity, time dilation is quite different.
1. Imagine a spaceman fallen towards an event horizon. He is due to arrive at 12:00
2. An observer in a space station is watching as well and he can see the spaceman's watch and the spaceman can see the clock on the wall of the space station.
As the man falls toward the black hole the observer sees the minute hand on his watch ticking slower and slower. It takes an hour for the hands to go to 11:56, a day to 11:57, a year to 11:58, a century to 11:59 and it never gets to 12:00. The spaceman shifts to red and disappears. According to the observer and his time, time for the spaceman has stopped.
The spaceman is looking at the clock on the wall and it is speeding up just at the same rate his appears to be slowing down.
When the spaceman falls through the event horizon his watch continues to tick 12:01, 12:02..... If he were to duck back through the event horizon many thousands of years would have passed according to the clock in the space station and the future progeny of the original observer would be watching him.
White holes are the opposite of the black hole. They have matter contained within an event horizon, but the event horizon in this case passes matter out of the white hole and shrinks.
An Alternate Cosmology
Dr. Russell Humphreys has calculated the assumptions:
1. The universe is bounded and finite
2. We are at the center of the universe
back into the GR theory. When they are put into the matrix the result that comes out is not a black hole and big bang, but a white hole beginning.
The universe is created as a sphere of H2O 2 light years in diameter inside a black hole with an event horizon about 450 million LY away. This water is the "Deep". The sphere is rotating.
The earth is merely a formless region in the center of the water.
The large mass has a gravity of more than a million trillion "g's" and begins to pull the mass of water into itself.
This ignites a thermonuclear reaction in the center creating light.
As the gravity continues even light cannot escape to the surface and the sphere darkens. (Ps. 104:2)
The Holy Spirit hovers over the surface and starts ball of water to spin faster..
He also lights up the surface, creating a bright side and a dark side thus creating a circle on the face of the waters, at the boundary of light and darkness.
God changes the black hole that is forming into a white hole with an event horizon about 900 million light years in diameter. This causes the ball of matter to start expanding rapidly.
God marks off a large volume (the expanse or "firmament") with the deep, where material is allowed to pull apart into clusters and fragments as it expands, but he causes the waters above and below the to stay coherent.
The expanding space causes the heat waves to lengthen relativistically eventually becoming the background cosmic microwaves.
God gathers the matter below the expanse and from heavier elements formed earlier in the fusion process on day one he constructs the minerals and from them forms the "foundation of the earth" (Job 38:4)
In the expanse the matter is drawn out into irregular clusters of hydrogen, helium and other elements formed in the first day.
Rapid radioactive decay occurs as a result of the rapid stretching of space. The resultant heating forms the earth's crust and makes it buoyant relative to the mantle below. This causes the granitic rocks to rise above the basaltic rocks and causes the water to form into basins.
Some basins are above the granitic rock but most are below in the fountains of the deep. The expansion of space rapidly cools the rock and solidifies it.
God forms plants on the newly formed land.
The continuing expansion of space causes the waters above the expanse to reach the event horizon and pass beyond it. The amount of matter within the event horizon decreases which starts its rapid shrinking.
The clock at earth time has ticked off two days. A new clock has appeared just outside the event horizon and due to gravitational time dilation it starts ticking off seconds billions of times faster.
Day 4 beginning:
The shrinking event horizon reached earth early on the fourth day. The clock on earth time is just into the fourth day, but the clock just outside the event horizon has ticked off billions of years.
During these billions of years God allows gravity to coalesce the irregular clusters of hydrogen, helium and other elements into stars and galaxies.
The continued expansion of space causes their light to stretch relativistically. The expansion stops.
The in situ universe
It is also possible that the universe was just created in a fully mature state. A physicist recently calculated the time is takes for a photon to escape the center of the sun and make its way to the surface of that star.
The time was 198,000 years! Now does that mean that the sun was created for 198,000 years before it could emit light? No light was created first and then the sun and the stars.
Evidently this light just created was neither the sun nor the stars which are created later. Vibrating Superstrings in the 5th dimension curled to 10-33cm.
The first act of division occurs now in the division of the light and the dark. Evidently the diurnal rotation of the earth began at this time starting the 24-hour day. It is from this we can safely say all the rest of the "yamin" or days, evenings and mornings are 24-hour periods.
Vs. 6 Tells of another division.
The waters below are separated by the waters above by an "expanse" that God called heaven. This is the first heaven or the atmosphere. Evidently the oceans and the atmosphere were now created along with some kind of water based cover over all.
Water has all through scripture been the type of the Holy Spirit. Water is also typified as salvation. Water is unique among the substances as when frozen it floats on its liquid form. Without this property the oceans would be frozen solid.
Dr. Carl Baugh in his book Panorama of Creation presents an interesting scenario as to what this firmament above the atmosphere actually was. The Hebrew word for firmament is "raquia" which means to pound out or compress thin sheets of metal. Dr. Baugh puts forth the case of a layer of near metallic hydrogen compressed under supercold conditions.
Hydrogen in this state is
On each side of the hydrogen would be a 10-ft. to 20-ft. layer of frozen crystal clear ice.
Under this layer would be a hyperbaric atmosphere of about 35% oxygen. Bubbles in ancient amber have been found with this content of oxygen. That concentration of oxygen would oxidize all things unless held under a hyperbaric pressure. Dr. Baugh estimates that the pressure at sea level would have been about 32 lbs./ in2 instead of the 14 lbs. now present. This high level of oxygen and high pressure would explain the huge dinosaurs that existed. Scientists have been mystified as to how the biggest of the dinosaurs could have delivered oxygen throughout their body given the assumption of todays pressure and oxygen level. Hyperbaric systems have been used successfully in burn units where severely burned people have been healed much quicker than if left under normal conditions.
This near metallic hydrogen layer would also alter the light. The light coming through would be devoid of all UV and short wave blue radiation and would be a light pink or magenta color. The fiber optic quality of the layer would make sure the sky would never be completely dark. This may be the lesser light talked about later.
The pink spectrum is the color that plants grow the best in. The pink light and hyperbaric oxygen content together could explain the enormous plants that were in existence back then. A researcher grew a tomato plant under these conditions and the plant has produced over 10,000 tomatoes and is still producing several years later. A man under such conditions could run 200 miles and not get tired assuming he was in fit shape otherwise.
Pink light also causes the human brain to secrete norepinephrine, a natural tranquilizer and neurotransmitter. Pink light causes the brain to work at its maximum.
The Anthropic Principle
The Universe appears to be designed for life. Perhaps more specifically for life in one place and very rare. Life appears to be certain but extremely rare at the same time.
1. Strong Nuclear force coupling constant
> No hydrogen, nuclei unstable
< No elements other than hydrogen
2. Weak Nuclear force coupling constant
> Too much heavy elements - all stars collapse and no ejection
< Not enough heavy elements,
3. Gravitational constant
> Stars too hot and would burn too quickly
< Stars too cool to ignite
4. Electromagnetic coupling constant
> Insufficient chemical bonding, no elements heavier than boron
< Insufficient chemical bonding
5. Ratio of Electron mass to Proton mass
> Insufficient chemical bonding
< Insufficient chemical bonding
6. Stability of the Proton
> Life would die by excess radiation
< Not enough matter in universe for life
7. Fine structure constants
> No star masses greater than 0.7 solar masses
< No star masses less than 1.8 solar masses
8. 12C, 16O nuclear energy levels
> Insufficient oxygen
< Insufficient carbon
9. Ground state energy level of 4He
> Insufficient carbon and oxygen
< Insufficient carbon and oxygen
10. Decay rate of 8Be
> Heavy element fusion would cause all stars to explode
< No element beyond Be
11. Neutron to Proton mass ratio
> Too few neutrons available for heavy elements necessary for life
< All stars would collapse into neutron stars or black holes
12. Polarity of the water molecule.
> Heat of fusion and vaporization too great for life to exist
< Water would be too weak of a solvent for life, ice would not float
1. Surface Gravity
> Atmosphere would contain too much ammonia and methane
< Atmosphere would loose too much water
2. Crust thickness
> Too much O2 would be transferred to crust from atmosphere
< Volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great.
3. Rotation Period
> Uneven heating would cause extreme temperature differences
< Uneven heating would cause extreme temperature differences
4 Gravitational coupling with Moon
> Tidal effects would be to severe
< Improper nutrient mixing in oceans, orbital obliquity changes, magnetic field too weak
5. Magnetic Field
> Magnetic storms would be too severe
< No ozone layer, no protection from hard radiation
6. Axial Tilt
> Surface temperature differences too great
< Surface temperature differences too great
7. Albedo (reflectivity)
> Runaway glaciation
< Runaway greenhouse effect
8. O to N ratio
> Advanced life functions would proceed too quickly
< Advanced life functions would proceed too slowly
9. CO2 and water vapor levels
> Runaway greenhouse effect
10. Ozone level
> Surface temperature too low
< Surface temperature too high, too much UV radiation
11. Atmospheric electric discharge rate
> Too much fire destruction would occur
< Not enough nitrogen fixed in atmosphere
12. Seismic activity
> Too much destruction
< Not enough mineral and nutrient recycling would occur
> Luminosity would be too great
< Luminosity would change too quickly
2. Distance from center of Galaxy
> Not enough heavy elements
< Too great of radiation, stellar density would move planet out of life zone
> Star would burn too quickly
< Distance range for life too narrow, tidal forces would disrupt planet orbit, insufficient uv radiation for plants to make sugars and oxygen.
Redder- photosynthesis would not occur
Bluer- photosynthesis would not occur
5. Distance to Earth
> Planet too cool for stable water cycle
< Planet too hot for stable water cycle
6. Galaxy type
Too elliptical - star formation would cease before life chemistry occurs
Too irregular - radiation too great, no heavy elements
1. Expansion rate of Universe
> No star formation
< Universe would collapse
2. Entropy level of the Universe
> No galaxy formation
< No star formation
3. Mass density of the Universe
> Too much deuterium, stars burn too quickly
< Insufficient helium, too few heavy elements
4. Number of Stars
> Radiation too great, gravitational tidal forces disruptive
< Not enough heavy elements for life
5. Distance between Stars
> Heavy elements would not spread
< Radiation too great, gravitational tidal forces disruptive
6. Velocity of light
> Luminosity too great
< Luminosity not enough
Binary white dwarfs constant
Necessary for fluorine production
There are more factors and more are being discovered all the time. These factors are balanced to 1 in 1060. Meaning life is almost certain but also very rare. I.e. only 5% of the galaxies could possibly support life.
Cosmologists Bernard Carr and Martin Rees in an article in Nature state in their summary:
"Nature does exhibit remarkable coincidences and these do warrant some explanation."
Carr goes on to state in a later article:
"One would have to conclude either that the features of the universe invoked in support of the Anthropic Principle are only coincidences or that the universe was indeed tailor made for life. I will leave it to the theologians to ascertain the identity of the tailor!"
Cosmologist Edward Harrison also stated:
"Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God - the design argument of Paley - updated and refurbished. The fine-tuning of the universe provides prima facie evidence of deistic design. Take your choice: blind chance that requires multitudes of universes or design that requires only one..... Many scientists, when they admit their views, incline toward the teleological or design argument."